Gong Shu Ban had completed the construction of Cloud-ladders for Chu and was going to attack Song with them. Mozi heard of it and set out from Qi. He walked ten days and ten nights and arrived at Ying. He saw Gong Shu Ban. The latter asked him what he wanted of him. Mozi said: Some one in the north has humiliated me. I would like to have you kill him. Gong Shu Ban was displeased. Mozi persisted, offering him ten jin. Finally Gong Shu Ban said: "My principle is incompatible with murdering people." Thereupon Mozi rose and bowed twice and spoke: Now, let me explain myself.
The Lord of Lu asked Mozi: "I fear Qi will attack me. Is there any remedy?" Mozi said: Yes, the sage-kings of the Three Dynasties, Yu, Tang, Wen, and Wu, were originally feudal lords of states of only a hundred li square. Yet, enlisting the loyal and practising righteousness, they acquired the empire. While the wicked kings of the Three Dynasties, Jie, Zhou, You, and Li, by estranging the loyal and practising wickedness, lost the empire.
Gong Mengzi said to Mozi: "The gentleman should fold his hands on the breast in waiting. He will speak when consulted he will not speak when not consulted. He is like a bell when struck it sounds, when not struck it does not sound." Mozi said: This idea covers three phases of which you know but one; so you do not understand what you are talking about. In the case of the ruler's committing violence in the state, to go and warn him will be called insolence, and to offer warning through those around him will be called meddling with counsel. This is where the gentleman hesitates (to speak).
Mozi said: Of the multitude of things none is more valuable than righteousness. Suppose we say to a person: We shall give you a hat and shoes on condition you let us cut off your hands and feet. Would he agree to this? Of course, he will not agree. Why? Just because hats and shoes are not so valuable as hands and feet. Again (if we say), we shall give you the whole world on condition you let us kill you. Would he agree to this? Of course he will not agree. Why? Just because the world is not so valuable as one's person.
Mozi was angry with Geng Zhuzi. Geng Zhuzi said: Am I not at all better than others?" Mozi said: Suppose I am starting out for Tai Hang. And a horse and an ox are to pull my cart. Which of them would you urge? Geng Zhuzi said: "I would urge the horse." Mozi asked: Why urge the horse? Geng Zhuzi said: "Because the horse is capable (of better speed)." Mozi said: I also think you are capable (of better things).
The gu (reason/cause) of something is what it must get before it will come about.
Exposition of Canon I:
'Minor reason': having this, it will not necessarily be so; lacking this, necessarily it will not be so. It is a part, like having a starting point. 'Major reason': having this, it will necessarily [be so]; lacking [this, necessarily it will not] be so. Like the appearing bringing about the seeing.
The Confucianist says: Love among relations should depend upon the degree of relationship, and honour to the virtuous should be graded. This is to advocate a discrimination among the near and the distant relations and among the respectable and the humble. But, according to his code of propriety: Mourning for the death of the parent should be three years; for the wife or the eldest son three years; for an uncle, a brother, or one of the other sons, a year; and for a near relative, five months. If the periods are based on the degree of relationship, evidently mourning for the closer relative should be longer and for the more distant shorter. Thus the wife and the eldest son are the same as the parents (in nearness).
Mozi said: In order to expound a doctrine there must be established some standard of judgment. To expound without a standard is similar to determining the directions of sunrise and sunset on a potter's wheel that is turning. I should think even such obvious distinctions as that between the directions of sunrise and sunset cannot be thus determined. Therefore every doctrine must stand three tests. What are the three tests? They are the test of its basis, the test of its verifiability, and the test of its applicability. How is it to be based? It is to be based on the deeds of the early sage-kings.